Why choose lithium batteries than lead-acid batteries

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Lithium-ion batteries are gradually replacing lead-acid battery technology in a variety of applications. Generally speaking, which is better to compare lithium batteries and lead-acid batteries? It should be carried out according to the weight energy density, volume energy density, service life, price, applicability and environmental protection.

Comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of lithium batteries and lead-acid batteries in electrochemical performance:

1. Comparison of Lithium Batteries and Lead Acid Batteries in Gravity Energy Density

Lithium batteries have high energy. It has high storage density, currently the highest has reached 460Wh/kg, which is about 5-10 times that of lead-acid batteries, and may be higher in the future (specific energy refers to the energy per unit weight or unit volume, the specific energy is Wh/kg or Wh/L to express.) With the development of lithium battery safety technology, the use of lithium batteries will become more and more safe and popular.

2. Comparison of volumetric energy density between lithium and lead-acid batteries

Generally, under the same volume, the energy density of lithium-ion batteries is 2.5 times that of nickel-cadmium batteries and 1.8 times that of nickel-metal hydride batteries. Smaller size and lighter weight.

The quality and volumetric energy density of traditional lead-acid batteries are low, and the energy density is only about 1/3 of that of lithium-ion batteries and about 1/2 of that of nickel-hydrogen batteries, and the volume is relatively large, which is not suitable for light weight and small volume. use. The cycle life of traditional lead-acid batteries is short, and the theoretical cycle number is about 1/3 of that of lithium-ion batteries.

3. Comparison of life cycle of lithium battery and lead-acid battery

Lithium battery life is not calculated in years, but in cycles. Lithium batteries only last two to three years, whether you use them or not. Lithium batteries can generally be charged and discharged 300-500 times. It is best to partially discharge a lithium battery rather than fully discharge it, and try to avoid frequent full discharges. Once the batteries are off the production line, the clock starts to run.

Although the production technology and production process of lead-acid batteries have been improved in recent years, there are still troubling problems in the process of continuous use. That is, the service life of lead-acid batteries always seems to be so unsatisfactory. On the one hand, the service life of lead-acid batteries is not up to the standard, and its service life is shortened very quickly. Regardless of any lead-acid battery (including domestic and imported), it cannot escape the vicious circle of early scrapping in use. Generally, the recyclable life of lead-acid batteries is one and a half years, and lead-acid batteries with better quality can even be recycled for two years. But in general, the life of lead-acid batteries begins to decline after half a year of use. Its power usage will gradually decrease.

4. Comparison of lithium batteries and lead acid batteries in price

At present, the price of lithium-ion batteries is about 3 times more expensive than that of lead-acid batteries. However, combined with the analysis of service life and the same cost, the service life of lithium-ion batteries is still longer. Compared with lead-acid batteries, lithium-ion batteries have a higher average voltage and higher energy density, in other words, lithium-ion batteries have more capacity for the same size battery.

Cell material cost

Lithium-ion battery cells are composed of lithium alloy metal oxides for positive electrodes, graphite for negative electrodes, and electrolytes for non-aqueous electrolyte materials.

The composition materials of lead-acid batteries include lead and its oxides of positive and negative electrodes and sulfuric acid solution contained in the electrolyte.

Among these cell constituent materials, the price of lithium alloy metal oxide is more expensive than the base price of lead and its oxides. Since the second half of 2021, the cost of various materials for lithium batteries has continued to rise, resulting in an increase in the cost of the entire cell.

5. Comparison of Lithium Batteries and Lead Acid Batteries in Applicability

From the perspective of battery safety protection, 18650 cells are designed with safety valves, which can not only release excessive internal pressure, but also physically disconnect the battery from the external circuit, which is equivalent to physically separating the cells to ensure The safety of other cells in the battery pack. In addition, the HLC lithium battery pack will be equipped with a protection board, which can precisely control the status of each cell in the battery pack and directly solve the problem of overcharge and over-discharge from the root cause.

Power lithium batteries mainly use lithium iron phosphate. The P-O bond in the lithium iron phosphate crystal is stable and difficult to decompose. Even at high temperature or overcharge, it will not collapse and generate heat like lithium cobalt oxide or form strong oxidizing substances, so it has good security.

Conversely, lead-acid batteries lack the protection of a protective plate. In terms of safety protection, lead-acid batteries seem to be lacking in safety protection except for safety valves. Many low-quality chargers cannot even power off after being fully charged. The safety guarantee is far from lithium batteries. Coupled with a low-quality charger, no problem is that you have a good personality.

Finally, if the battery structure is damaged due to accidental impact, lead-acid batteries seem to be safer than lithium batteries. However, in an accident of this level, the battery material has already been exposed to the open environment, and the explosion is out of the question.

From the above safety hazards of lead-acid batteries and lithium iron phosphate batteries, it can be seen that the biggest safety hazards of lead-acid batteries lie in their constituent materials. The electrodes of lead-acid batteries are mainly made of lead and its oxides, and the electrolyte is sulfuric acid solution. The stability of these constituent materials is not very high. If there is a liquid leakage or explosion accident, the harm caused will be much higher than that of lithium batteries.

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Comparison of lithium batteries and lead-acid batteries in terms of environmental pollution:

1. Lithium battery pollution

Lithium batteries contain lithium hexafluorophosphate and other harmful substances, which will cause serious pollution to the environment and ecosystem. Heavy metals such as diamond, manganese, and copper will also harm humans themselves through the biological chain through accumulation, which is extremely harmful.

Lithium iron phosphate batteries are zero pollution as power energy equipment, so enterprises have great prospects for lithium iron phosphate batteries. As a new century energy source, is it true that there is no pollution at all? the answer is negative. Whether it is a general battery or a lithium battery, because the battery itself is a chemical substance, when it is placed in nature, the internal substances begin to decompose over time. Influence. If you don’t know how to dispose of it, you can put it away first, and then send it to the collection station when you have a chance. In fact, there are also special garbage bins for recycling used batteries, and garbage stations will also classify them, and they can also be sent directly to the local environmental protection bureau.

The pollution of lithium batteries will be there, but it is relatively small.

2. Lead-acid battery pollution

Lead-acid battery pollution is mainly in the production process. Lead-containing heavy metal wastewater is generated in the coating and battery cleaning processes. In the grid casting, alloy preparation, lead parts and aluminum powder manufacturing processes, a variety of lead-containing fumes and lead dust are produced. . The main pollutant of lead-acid batteries is lead, so what are the hazards of lead pollution?

Effects of lead on the nervous system

The central nervous system of the human body is the general manager of life activities, and its functional state plays a leading role in the course of lead poisoning. Lead can impair shape intelligence, visual motor function, memory, and reaction time; language and spatial abstraction, sensory and Changes in behavior, fatigue, insomnia, irritability, headache and hyperactivity and other symptoms, moderate or more lead poisoning, polyneuritis may occur, severe cases may even damage peripheral nerves or spinal cord anterior horn cells, leading to “lead paralysis” In severe cases of late lead poisoning, toxic encephalopathy may be caused by qualitative lesions of the central nervous system, such as intracranial vasospasm, which promotes early sclerosis of cerebral blood vessels.

Effects of lead on hematopoietic system

Lead can affect the metabolism of phylloline, which is an intermediate product in the process of hemoglobin synthesis. When the body is exposed to lead poisoning, it affects the conversion of 6-aminolevulinic acid (6-ALA) into phyllobilin, and the conversion of fecal phylloin into the original. Porphyrin, protoporphyrin and ferrous iron synthesize ferritin and other processes, which lead to the formation of hemoglobin disorders and lead to lead-induced anemia. Lead-induced anemia is common in lead workers and children, especially children. In addition, lead also inhibits Na+- on red blood cell membranes. K+-ATPase and inhibition of the pentose phosphate bypass lead to hemolysis.

Effects of lead on the digestive system

Under the action of lead poisoning, a series of changes in gastrointestinal function may occur. Lead can inhibit the function of the pancreas and increase the secretion of salivary glands and gastric glands; at the same time, lead will combine with hydrogen sulfide in the intestines, so that the hydrophobic hydrogen loses the effect of promoting intestinal peristalsis. , leading to intractable constipation.

Effects of lead on other organ systems

Lead can damage the proximal tubules and glomerular cells of the kidney, increase the glomerular filtration rate, and impair renal tubular reabsorption. In severe cases, lead toxic nephropathy can occur, such as nephrogenic hypertension. Lead can inhibit the mixed function oxidase of the liver. Synthesis, resulting in impaired liver biotransformation, reducing liver detoxification function, lead can also affect human reproductive function, distort sperm, maternal lead can affect fetal development through the placenta, resulting in fetal malformation, causing serious harm to human reproduction.

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