Living in 2021 means living in an era of technology. With rapid advancement, the use and demand for high-quality technology have become elevated. Lithium-ion batteries are an emerging trend and considered supernova in regular batteries. Since the first design of lithium batteries, it has always been in good demand till now. Effective voltage and high amount of durability is the most prominent feature. The impactful nominal voltage remains constant for each and every cell of the 18650 cell battery pack. In the large-scale commercial industries, this central feature of lithium-ion batteries brings so much affectivity regarding the functioning of other valuable gadgets, including smartphones, Electric Vehicles, Semi Hybrid Electric Vehicles, and much more. The high voltage and low recharge cycle upscale its impact and demand among the critical players of the technology marketplace. The increased battery life services and common potential hazards bring much liking of customers for lithium-ion batteries. This article summarizes all the information that you need to know about the nominal voltage of lithium batteries.
What is Lithium Battery?
Seeking some reliable battery option for your commercial use? Lithium-ion batteries might be the best choice for you because of their vast range of advantages and reliabilities. Lithium-ion batteries are not something that is invented recently but holds a great history. The concept of lithium-ion batteries has been developed and came into life in 1970, and instantly become commercial in the 1980s. Since the first attempt at rechargeable lithium batteries production, it’s been a trend to improve its working and efficiency.
Constant improvement in the functioning and capabilities of lithium-ion batteries bring so many potential benefits to the various big electrical device corporations. The industry’s key players that use lithium batteries for increasing the working efficiency of their products include smartphone companies, portable devices, and automotive industry, etc. Improved safety, low hazard risk, and an adequate battery management system make it a prime battery choice for the various sectors requiring batteries. The high voltage availability and an effective nominal voltage of lithium-ion batteries are crucial aspects of its high market growth and market integration. The critical element of lithium-ion batteries is that they can have high voltage and possess a high charge storage per unit volume and per unit mass.
Lithium-ion Battery Storage
Lithium-ion batteries work based on ion movement and chemistry. Theoretically, the process could continue for a much more extended period, but specific aspects interrupt it. The aging process of lithium-ion batteries holds so much importance to temperature. The adverse or high temperature is very harmful to the batteries. To make the battery service life prolongs. Primarily lithium batteries are stored in the cold refrigerator. Because aging becomes faster when stored in a place that holds adequately high temperature. So the recommended battery storage system should be at average room temperature or at cold temperature. The batteries should be recharged and monitored regularly with great care to enhance the battery pack’s service life. The recharge process should be monitored very strictly at least once in 90 days.
Lithium-ion Battery Cell Voltage
Nowadays, the most popular lithium-ion batteries in the market are 18650 Cells. Before utilizing these batteries for your big projects, it is essential to understand and be knowledgeable about the working capacity, voltage, and charge/discharge capacity of the cells of your lithium battery pack. Lithium-ion batteries have a high voltage and charging capacity for each of its cell. The nominal voltage of any battery holds great importance. The average nominal voltage of each cell of the lithium batteries is 3.6V. It is a bit low for big projects, but you can get the high voltage capacity by joining two or more of these cells. By default, all the lithium-ion battery cells hold nominal voltage no more and equal to ~3.6V.
The charge and discharge status impacted this average nominal voltage of the lithium-ion batteries. It could go as low as about 3.2V when the battery is fully discharged, also known as protected discharge. The nominal voltage could go as much higher as about 4.2V when the battery is fully charged. These are the typical values of the nominal voltage. Discharging a lithium battery below the 3.2V or charging it above than 4.2V could cause permanent damage or bring a firework recipe. All the above information is only about the single cell of the lithium-ion battery, which is 18650. The whole battery pack might hold different values because it holds the cells in series or parallel fashion to attain the high voltage. The lithium-ion battery pack is used for big industries, including automotive industries for electric vehicles and semi hybrid electric vetches.
What is meant by Nominal Voltage?
Getting into more detail about the voltage of lithium-ion batteries and battery packs, the one significant thing is the nominal voltage. So for better understanding, we need to know more about the terminology. The simple voltage could be defined as a fully charged cell or battery voltage when delivering rated capacity at a specific discharge rate. The nominal voltage is the actual voltage rating and value of a 18650 cell. This voltage’s standard and set value is 3.6V for all the cells and could not be changed despite the various manufacturers. The nominal voltage is generally measured between the total charges and full discharge based on the 0.2C. The C in this context is the rated capacity of the cell in mAh. Other than nominal voltage, two different types of voltage are also considered for the lithium-ion battery cell.
The lithium-ion battery output voltage varies during the discharging process. The lowest nominal voltage during battery discharge is known as the total discharge voltage, which is 3.2V. Lowering it below the average might cause damage to the internal resistance of the battery, which leads to an explosion. So it is essential to handle the discharge voltage with great precision. The actual voltage profile during discharge depends on various factors. This might include cell chemistry, discharge rate, temperature, and the age of the cells or lithium battery pack. When the battery is fully charged, the highest nominal voltage is known as the charged or full charge voltage. The standard and average value of the charge voltage is 4.2V and could not be increased at any given time. If not taken care of with more attention, it will cause permanent damage to the battery.
Lithium-ion Battery Pack voltage
Lithium-ion batteries change the whole map of battery technology in a true sense. With excellent battery management system, impactful voltage, high energy density, and other reliabilities make it a much more practical option for various battery-dependent industries. More reliability came into the picture with the availability of lithium-ion battery cells and lithium-ion battery packs. 18650 cell is the most prominently used lithium battery cell and offers an excellent range of applications. The nominal voltage of lithium cells is way better than the lead-acid batteries, which provide 2V per cell. The lithium-ion battery pack is a complete set for the high voltage requirement. It offers the connected group of cells in the series or in a parallel fashion. For example, you can get a high voltage of about 12V when connected four cells together in a series form. By connected 8 cells together, you can achieve a 24V battery voltage of LiFePO4.
The figure of voltage could be maximized by connecting the different numbers of cells. 16 cells of lithium-ion could bring an impressive 48V with a nominal voltage of 51.2V. The most crucial aspect of lithium-ion battery packs is that they could work well with all of your regular 12v, 24V, and 48V inverters. Because of the beneficial elements of the lithium-ion batteries, they have directly replaced the lead-acid batteries, although they have very similar charging voltages. One of the most brilliant features of lithium batteries is that they do not need any absorption charge. It is also unnecessary for the lithium batteries to be held in a precisely constant voltage state for a particular period for better efficiency. There is no need to charge the battery any further once it reaches the maximum charge voltage.
Along with the voltage, lithium-ion batteries also hold great potential in the discharge field. The discharge voltage of the lithium-ion batteries is much higher compared to the lead-acid batteries. Another important feature about lithium-ion batteries is that they do not suffer from deficit cycling, which is a massive problem for lead-acid batteries.
Safety and Reliability of Lithium Batteries
Lithium batteries indeed bring much efficiency for industrial use. The impactful battery management system helps the users regarding the safety and reliability of these batteries. The safety issues have always been high for batteries, but the integration of a Battery management system in all assemblies lowers the concern in lithium batteries. BMS monitor, balance and protect the cells from operating outside the Safe Operating Area. The imbalance in the nominal voltage might cause permanent damage to the lithium batteries. For example, a voltage lower than 2.5V and above 4.2V will cause potential damage to cells but the battery management system of lithium battery provide complete monitoring and prevent the cells from damage from over or under voltage.