From the perspective of midstream cell and downstream pack, many important consumer devices currently choose China as their assembly base, which has led to the establishment of Japanese and Korean battery cells and battery assembly plants in China, and the production capacity of domestic manufacturers is also developing rapidly.
From the industrial development path, based on the field of consumer electronics, it is a normal development trajectory to take small and medium-sized lithium batteries such as power tools and electric bicycles as development opportunities, and then to hybrid batteries and finally to pure electric batteries. At present, power tools and electric bicycles are still dominated by nickel-cadmium and lead-acid batteries, and the application of lithium batteries is developing slowly; the main hybrid technology is abroad, and hybrid vehicle products are mainly foreign brands. From the perspective of state support, more More inclined to pure electric vehicles.
At present, the two key indicators of lithium batteries, cost and energy density, have been greatly improved, laying the foundation for the industrialization of electric vehicles. In the past ten years, the price of lithium-ion batteries has dropped by nearly 85%, from 3,800 yuan/Kwh in 2011 to 578 yuan/Kwh in 2020; on the contrary, the energy density of lithium-ion batteries has increased nearly three times, from 2011 to 578 yuan/Kwh. The annual 80wh/kg rose to 270wh/kg in 2020.
At present, the two key indicators of lithium batteries, cost and energy density, have been greatly improved, laying the foundation for the industrialization of electric vehicles.
In the past ten years, the price of lithium-ion batteries has dropped by nearly 85%, from 3,800 yuan/Kwh in 2011 to 578 yuan/Kwh in 2020; on the contrary, the energy density of lithium-ion batteries has increased nearly three times, from 2011 to 578 yuan/Kwh. The annual 80wh/kg rose to 270wh/kg in 2020.
China has formed the most complete lithium battery industry chain in the world. In 2020, China’s lithium-ion battery shipments will increase from 30.4Gwh in 2014 to 158.5Gwh, and the global share will increase to 53.8%. The growth rate of China’s lithium-ion battery output has gradually slowed down due to falling prices, with a year-on-year increase of 9% in 2020 to 169.64 billion yuan.
In terms of product structure, judging from the proportion of monthly installed capacity of different technology types of passenger car batteries in China in the past two years, the power battery ternary still occupies a dominant position, and the proportion of iron and lithium has increased; the proportion of square batteries in China remains around 80%. , mainly because the leading companies CATL and BYD both use prismatic batteries.
In terms of corporate structure, Wu Hui said that the current structure is relatively unstable, and excellent companies with global competitiveness have emerged in different battery segments. Among them, five companies with the highest global competitiveness have emerged in the field of power batteries: Panasonic, Samsung, LG, CATL, and SK. At the same time, China has become the world’s largest battery material production base, supplying a large number of local and overseas battery companies.
The application of electric vehicles
At present, most of my country’s electric vehicles still use lead-acid batteries as power. The battery itself has a mass of more than ten kilograms. If a lithium-ion battery is used, the mass of the battery is only about 3 kg. Therefore, it is an inevitable trend for lithium-ion batteries to replace the lead-acid batteries of electric bicycles, so that the lightness, convenience, safety and cheapness of electric vehicles will be welcomed by more and more people.
For my country, automobile pollution is becoming more and more serious, and the damage to the environment such as exhaust gas and noise must be controlled and treated, especially in some densely populated and traffic-congested large and medium-sized cities. Therefore, a new generation of lithium-ion batteries has been vigorously developed in the electric vehicle industry due to its non-polluting, less pollution, and energy diversification characteristics. Therefore, the application of lithium-ion batteries is another good strategy to solve the current situation.
Due to the strong advantages of lithium-ion batteries, aerospace organizations also use lithium-ion batteries in space missions. At present, the important use of lithium-ion batteries in the aviation field is to provide support for calibration and ground operations during launch and flight; at the same time, it is beneficial to improve the efficacy of primary batteries and support night operations.
From electronic watches, CD players, mobile phones, MP3, MP4, cameras, video cameras, various remote controls, shaved knives, pistol drills, children’s toys, etc. From emergency power sources in hospitals, hotels, supermarkets, telephone exchanges and other occasions, power tools are widely using lithium-ion batteries.
Aerospace special applications
Special weapons, robots, AGVs, rail transit, medical electronics, emergency backup, exploration and mapping, commercial finance, instrumentation, consumer electronics and other fields have lithium-ion batteries to play a huge role.
Comparing lithium batteries and lead-acid batteries, we need to do it from the perspectives of weight energy density, volume energy density, service life, price, applicability, national policy, safety, and environmental protection:
1. Gravity energy density
The current energy density of lithium batteries is generally 200~260wh/g, and lead-acid is generally 50~70wh/g, so the weight energy density of lithium batteries is 3~5 times that of lead-acid, which means that under the same capacity, lead The acid battery is 3 to 5 times that of the lithium battery, so the lithium battery has an absolute advantage in the lightweight of the energy storage device.
2. Volumetric energy density
The volume capacity density of lithium batteries is usually about 1.5 times that of lead-acid batteries, so under the same capacity, the volume of lithium batteries is about 30% smaller than that of batteries.
3. Use cycle
At present, the more popular material systems are ternary and lithium iron. The cycle times of ternary power lithium batteries are usually more than 1000 times, the cycle times of lithium iron phosphate batteries are more than 2000 times, and the cycle times of batteries are usually only about 300 to 350 times. , so the service life of lithium batteries is about 3-6 times that of lead-acid batteries.
At present, the price of lithium batteries is about 3 times more expensive than that of lead-acid batteries. However, combined with the analysis of service life and the same cost, the service life of lithium batteries is still longer.
Because the safety of lithium batteries is slightly worse than that of lead-acid batteries, various safety precautions need to be taken in use, such as preventing damage to lithium batteries caused by external forces or accidents, because this may cause fire or explosion; The temperature suitability is also very good, so in other suitability, the lithium battery is not inferior to the lead-acid battery.
6. Use occasions
Lead-acid batteries: car starting, electric vehicle batteries,Lithium batteries: mobile phones, computers, power tools, UPS power supplies, etc. are now also used in electric vehicle batteries.
7. Internal materials
The positive and negative electrodes of lead-acid batteries are lead oxide, metal lead, and the electrolyte is concentrated sulfuric acid.The positive and negative electrodes of the lithium battery are lithium cobalt oxide/lithium iron phosphate/lithium manganate, graphite, and organic electrolyte.
The safety of lithium batteries comes from the stability and reliable safety design of positive electrode materials. Lithium iron phosphate completely solves the hidden safety problems of lithium cobaltate and lithium manganate. Lead-acid batteries will explode under strong collision, while iron phosphate Lithium has undergone rigorous safety tests and will not explode even in violent collisions.
9. Environmental protection
LiFePO4 batteries do not contain any heavy metals and rare metals, are non-toxic, have no pollution in production and use, comply with European RoHS regulations, and are environmentally friendly batteries. However, there is a large amount of lead in lead-acid batteries. If they are disposed of improperly, they will still cause secondary pollution to the environment.
10. Operating temperature range
The operating temperature range of the lithium battery is -20-60°C, no air conditioning is required, and equipment installation costs, maintenance costs and electricity costs are reduced. The operating temperature range of lead-acid batteries is 15-35 °C.
11. Discharge characteristics
For the same fully charged lithium battery and storage battery, at the same temperature, using different rates of discharge current, the discharge output characteristics of lithium batteries are very stable, while the discharge output characteristics of batteries are very different, which will cause power instability.
Which is better, battery or lithium battery?
Lithium batteries are better. Lithium batteries are more than 3 times higher than lead-acid batteries in terms of volume specific energy or weight specific energy. Lithium batteries are smaller and lighter. Long cycle life. The battery is not efficient. The battery pack is bulky, resulting in a heavy body, short mileage, and the need for regular maintenance of the battery.
Lithium battery is a kind of battery. The reason why it is more forward-looking than other batteries is mainly because of its high safety, small size and high energy density. The 1980s was also the dawn of mobile device research and development. Lithium batteries The appearance also just conforms to the development of the times.
“Continuously exploring what customers and society need in our daily life, and how we can use science and technology to meet these needs, this is what researchers have to do. Rather than thinking seriously about what new discoveries are, make some adjustments and aimlessly Think about it, and sometimes inspiration will naturally emerge.” Yoshino Akira said.
Previously, the electrolyte (a solution containing ions) in batteries was water, he said. When a voltage of 1.5V or more is applied to water, the water is decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen. Therefore, in the past, it was impossible to obtain an electromotive force exceeding 1.5V. By replacing water with an organic solvent and using carbon in the negative electrode, an electromotive force of more than 4V can be obtained.
In addition, by using lithium cobalt oxide (a metal oxide containing lithium ions) for the positive electrode, Asahi Kasei was the first in the world to propose a prototype of a lithium battery. This small battery can be used in various electronic devices such as mobile phones, notebook computers, digital cameras and video cameras, portable music players, etc., so its appearance is heavyweight.
The No. 1 Lithium Battery Manufacturer – CATL
Ningde Times New Energy Technology Co., Ltd. (CATL) was established in 2011 and the company is headquartered in Ningde, Fujian. The company focuses on providing energy storage solutions for global green energy applications through battery technology.
The second lithium battery manufacturer – BYD
Founded in 1995, BYD Co., Ltd. spans the three major industries of IT, automobile and new energy, and is listed in Hong Kong (H shares) and Shenzhen (A shares). The world’s largest manufacturer of rechargeable batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries/mobile phone lithium batteries sell well, and a high-tech enterprise with strong R&D strength. The main product is lithium iron phosphate power battery.
The third lithium battery manufacturer – Guoxuan
Hefei Guoxuan High-tech Power Energy Co., Ltd. was established in 2005, initiated by Zhuhai Guoxuan Trading Co., Ltd. and Hefei Guoxuan Marketing Planning Co., Ltd. Guoxuan is mainly engaged in suppliers and service providers of lithium battery materials and cell design processes, and is an enterprise specializing in the research and development, production and operation of new lithium-ion batteries and their materials. The main products are lithium iron phosphate materials, cells, power battery packs, BMS systems and energy storage lithium battery packs.
The fourth lithium battery manufacturer – Lishen Battery
Tianjin Lishen Battery Co., Ltd., founded in 1997, is one of the top ten brands of lithium batteries, famous brand products in Tianjin, and the drafting unit of industry standards. It is committed to providing customers with overall power solutions, focusing on new energy vehicles, energy storage and special The main supplier of equipment supporting market. Lishen battery products include round (column), square, power and polymer lithium batteries, as well as photovoltaic systems, super capacitors and other six series with nearly a thousand models. Product applications cover three major areas: consumer electronics, new energy vehicles and energy storage.
The fifth lithium battery manufacturer – AVIC Lithium Battery
AVIC Lithium Battery Co., Ltd., a subsidiary of China Aviation Industry Corporation, is a high-tech new energy enterprise specializing in R&D and production of lithium-ion power batteries and lithium battery management systems. The company’s main products are lithium-ion power batteries, with a single capacity ranging from 10Ah to 500Ah. The main application fields include electric vehicles, power storage, military applications, rail transit, mining equipment, etc.
The sixth lithium battery manufacturer – Desay Battery
Shenzhen Desay Battery Technology Co., Ltd. is a listed company on the main board of Shenzhen Stock Exchange. The company mainly conducts business layout around the lithium battery industry chain. Among them, Huizhou Battery is mainly engaged in small and medium-sized lithium battery packaging and integration business, and Huizhou Lanwei is mainly engaged in small and medium-sized lithium batteries. In the mobile power management system business, the secondary subsidiary Huizhou Lanwei Xinyuan Technology Co., Ltd. is mainly engaged in power management systems such as large power batteries and energy storage batteries, and packaging integration business.
The seventh lithium Battery Manufacturer – Waterma Battery
Shenzhen Waterma Battery Co., Ltd. was established in 2002 and is located in Pingshan New District, Shenzhen. Shenzhen Waterma Battery Co., Ltd. is the first domestically to successfully develop lithium iron phosphate new energy vehicle power batteries, car starting power, and energy storage system solutions. And one of the first lithium iron phosphate battery companies to achieve large-scale production and batch application.
The Eighth Lithium Battery Manufacturer – Vaillant Lithium Battery
Shandong Weineng Environmental Protection Power Technology Co., Ltd. was established in August 2006, located in Dongcheng Industrial Park, Shouguang City, with a registered capital of 140.2 million yuan and an area of 500 acres. , sales in one of the high-tech enterprises. Weineng Power has national-level military qualifications such as weapons and equipment scientific research and production licenses, weapons and equipment quality system certification, equipment manufacturing unit qualification certificates, and weapons and equipment scientific research units confidentiality qualifications.
Ninth Lithium Battery Manufacturer – Nanyang Technology
Zhejiang Nanyang Technology Co., Ltd. was established in November 2001. The business scope of Nanyang Technology is lithium battery separator and other materials for lithium ion battery. It plans to build a lithium ion battery separator project with an annual output of 15 million square meters. The company is one of the largest professional electronic thin film manufacturers in my country.
The tenth lithium battery manufacturer – HLC battery
Shenzhen HLC Battery Electronics Co., Ltd. is a national high-tech enterprise integrating independent research and development, production and sales of lithium-ion battery modules. Its headquarters is located in Longhua District, Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, which is at the forefront of reform and opening up. The performance, technological innovation and full-scale service are at the top level, and have established a leading domestic industry position.
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