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Lithium-ion batteries generally use lithium alloy metal oxides as positive electrode materials, graphite as negative electrode materials, and use non-aqueous electrolytes. Most of the mobile phones we usually use are lithium batteries. At present, most of the power sources of electric vehicles on the market belong to lithium iron phosphate batteries. How are lithium batteries charged and discharged?
First of all, let’s take a look at the structure of lithium batteries. Lithium batteries are generally composed of positive electrodes, negative electrodes, electrolytes and separators. In daily life, our common mobile phone lithium batteries are square. The batteries in electric vehicle battery packs are generally round. Other shapes are also available. Laminated and wound versions are available.
The positive electrode of lithium battery is generally lithium manganate or lithium cobalt oxide, nickel cobalt lithium manganate material, and electric bicycles generally use nickel cobalt lithium manganate (commonly known as ternary) or ternary + a small amount of lithium manganate; the negative electrode is generally active The material graphite, or carbon with a similar graphite structure, the separator between the positive electrode and the negative electrode is a specially shaped polymer film, the pore size satisfies the good ion permeability, and at the same time has electronic insulation, that is, it allows the free passage of lithium ions, And electrons cannot pass through. The electrolyte plays the role of transporting charges between the positive and negative electrodes, and is generally a carbonate-based solvent in which lithium hexafluorophosphate is dissolved, and a gel-like electrolyte is used for polymers.
When the lithium battery is charged, the positive electrode releases lithium ions, and the lithium ions pass through the separator through the electrolyte, move to the negative electrode, and combine with the electrons of the abdominal muscle. At this time, the chemical reaction of the positive electrode is LiCoO2=Li(1-x)CoO2 +xLi++xe- (electron), the chemical reaction at the negative electrode is 6C+xLi++xe- = LixC6. When a lithium battery is discharged, the movement of lithium ions is just the opposite. Lithium ions enter the electrolyte from the negative electrode, pass through the diaphragm and finally reach the positive electrode, while electrons travel from the negative electrode to the positive electrode by the external circuit (the direction of electron movement is opposite to the current direction), which is the same as the positive electrode. The combination of lithium ions, this process allows the lithium battery to output electrical energy to the outside.
Taking a mobile phone battery as an example, when charging starts, the internal charging management chip first detects the voltage of the battery to be charged. If the voltage is lower than 3V, it must be pre-charged first. The charging current is 1/10 of the set current, and the voltage rises to 3V. to enter the standard charging process. The standard charging process is: constant current charging at the set current, when the battery voltage rises to 4.20V, change to constant voltage charging and keep the charging voltage at 4.20V. At this time, the charging current gradually decreases, and when the current decreases to 1/10 of the set charging current, the charging ends. The output voltage of the general mobile phone charger is 5V, and the charging management chip inside the mobile phone is responsible for reducing the voltage to 3.7V suitable for the mobile phone battery.
In fact, most of the current lithium batteries are polymer lithium batteries, and there is no such thing as how long the battery needs to be charged to activate like the previous lithium battery manufacturers said. After we buy it, we can use it normally, first discharge with a small current (usually set to 1-2A), and then use a current of 1A to perform charge-discharge cycles 2-3 times.
The battery of a new electric vehicle does not need to be completely used up and recharged for the first time. Do not drain the power, which will have a great impact on the battery life. The first three times to charge the battery of the electric vehicle should not exceed 12 hours. Under normal circumstances, the electric vehicle is best charged when the remaining battery power is between 30% and 50%, which can not only avoid the early capacity loss of the battery, but also avoid over-discharge.
After the battery has been used for half a year, it is best to deeply discharge the battery once a month, and then charge the electric vehicle battery after the deep discharge, and the time is controlled within 12 hours. This will greatly benefit the recovery of electric vehicle batteries. When the power of the battery is greatly reduced or the light does not turn on when the electric vehicle charger is charging, it is necessary to add distilled water to the battery to improve the service life of the electric vehicle battery.
The above is how to use the new lithium battery and how to charge the newly bought lithium battery. With the continuous improvement of the manufacturing technology of lithium batteries in recent years, the current lithium batteries on the market no longer need to be "activated" and can be fully charged at will. In fact, shallow discharge and shallow charge are more beneficial for lithium batteries. Only when the power module of the product is calibrated for lithium batteries, is it necessary to deep discharge and charge deeply.
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