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how to charge a lithium ion battery pack

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Lithium-ion batteries generally use lithium alloy metal oxides as positive electrode materials, graphite as negative electrode materials, and use non-aqueous electrolytes. Most of the mobile phones we usually use are lithium batteries. At present, most of the power sources of electric vehicles on the market belong to lithium iron phosphate batteries. How are lithium batteries charged and discharged?

First of all, let’s take a look at the structure of lithium batteries. Lithium batteries are generally composed of positive electrodes, negative electrodes, electrolytes and separators. In daily life, our common mobile phone lithium batteries are square. The batteries in electric vehicle battery packs are generally round. Other shapes are also available. Laminated and wound versions are available.

The positive electrode of lithium battery is generally lithium manganate or lithium cobalt oxide, nickel cobalt lithium manganate material, and electric bicycles generally use nickel cobalt lithium manganate (commonly known as ternary) or ternary + a small amount of lithium manganate; the negative electrode is generally active The material graphite, or carbon with a similar graphite structure, the separator between the positive electrode and the negative electrode is a specially shaped polymer film, the pore size satisfies the good ion permeability, and at the same time has electronic insulation, that is, it allows the free passage of lithium ions, And electrons cannot pass through. The electrolyte plays the role of transporting charges between the positive and negative electrodes, and is generally a carbonate-based solvent in which lithium hexafluorophosphate is dissolved, and a gel-like electrolyte is used for polymers.

When the lithium battery is charged, the positive electrode releases lithium ions, and the lithium ions pass through the separator through the electrolyte, move to the negative electrode, and combine with the electrons of the abdominal muscle. At this time, the chemical reaction of the positive electrode is LiCoO2=Li(1-x)CoO2 +xLi++xe- (electron), the chemical reaction at the negative electrode is 6C+xLi++xe- = LixC6. When a lithium battery is discharged, the movement of lithium ions is just the opposite. Lithium ions enter the electrolyte from the negative electrode, pass through the diaphragm and finally reach the positive electrode, while electrons travel from the negative electrode to the positive electrode by the external circuit (the direction of electron movement is opposite to the current direction), which is the same as the positive electrode. The combination of lithium ions, this process allows the lithium battery to output electrical energy to the outside.

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Steps for charging

trickle charge

Constant current charging

Constant voltage charging

Taking a mobile phone battery as an example, when charging starts, the internal charging management chip first detects the voltage of the battery to be charged. If the voltage is lower than 3V, it must be pre-charged first. The charging current is 1/10 of the set current, and the voltage rises to 3V. to enter the standard charging process. The standard charging process is: constant current charging at the set current, when the battery voltage rises to 4.20V, change to constant voltage charging and keep the charging voltage at 4.20V. At this time, the charging current gradually decreases, and when the current decreases to 1/10 of the set charging current, the charging ends. The output voltage of the general mobile phone charger is 5V, and the charging management chip inside the mobile phone is responsible for reducing the voltage to 3.7V suitable for the mobile phone battery.

How to use the newly bought lithium battery? Should it be charged or discharged first?

  • Do not use mobile power supply, car and computer to charge lithium batteries often. The charging and discharging of mobile phone lithium batteries requires stable voltage and current. If the voltage and current of long-term charging are unstable, it may damage the mobile phone battery.

  • In addition to being afraid of low power, lithium batteries are also afraid of overheating. Especially when charging, if the heat dissipation of the mobile phone case is poor, it is best to remove the heat during charging; the way to store lithium batteries when they are not used for a long time is to charge them to 40% and put them in the refrigerator. , but remember not to freeze.

  • The first 3-5 times of charging of a new lithium battery is generally called the adjustment period, and it should be charged for more than 14 hours to ensure that the activity of lithium ions is fully activated. Lithium batteries have no memory effect but have strong inertia. They should be fully activated to ensure the best performance in future use.

  • Don’t always wait until the power is exhausted to recharge, this will speed up its loss; lithium batteries lose a lot when they are in low power, long-term 40%-60% power can make it the longest life, but for frequently used equipment you can let the battery In the 100% state, it will not be overcharged even if it is fully charged, and the power supply is used at this time. In order to calibrate the battery scale, it needs to be fully charged and discharged once a month.

  • Although our mobile phone is within the network coverage area, our mobile phone can no longer accept and make calls when the mobile phone is turned off and charging. At this time, we can use the mobile phone’s unconnected transfer function to transfer the mobile phone to the fixed phone around us to prevent the loss of incoming calls. This method is also applicable when the mobile phone is not in the network coverage area or the signal is weak and cannot be connected temporarily.

Should a new lithium battery be charged or discharged first?

In fact, most of the current lithium batteries are polymer lithium batteries, and there is no such thing as how long the battery needs to be charged to activate like the previous lithium battery manufacturers said. After we buy it, we can use it normally, first discharge with a small current (usually set to 1-2A), and then use a current of 1A to perform charge-discharge cycles 2-3 times.

The battery of a new electric vehicle does not need to be completely used up and recharged for the first time. Do not drain the power, which will have a great impact on the battery life. The first three times to charge the battery of the electric vehicle should not exceed 12 hours. Under normal circumstances, the electric vehicle is best charged when the remaining battery power is between 30% and 50%, which can not only avoid the early capacity loss of the battery, but also avoid over-discharge.

After the battery has been used for half a year, it is best to deeply discharge the battery once a month, and then charge the electric vehicle battery after the deep discharge, and the time is controlled within 12 hours. This will greatly benefit the recovery of electric vehicle batteries. When the power of the battery is greatly reduced or the light does not turn on when the electric vehicle charger is charging, it is necessary to add distilled water to the battery to improve the service life of the electric vehicle battery.

The above is how to use the new lithium battery and how to charge the newly bought lithium battery. With the continuous improvement of the manufacturing technology of lithium batteries in recent years, the current lithium batteries on the market no longer need to be "activated" and can be fully charged at will. In fact, shallow discharge and shallow charge are more beneficial for lithium batteries. Only when the power module of the product is calibrated for lithium batteries, is it necessary to deep discharge and charge deeply.

How to safely dispose of lithium batteries after bulging?

  1. After half of the power is used up, it starts to replenish the power. In rare cases, a complete discharge and full charge maintenance are performed (for example, after a few months to half a year, it is fully discharged and charged once, and frequent full charge and discharge are easy to grow crystals), In this way, the amount of crystallization can be greatly reduced, and the bulging phenomenon can be significantly slowed down;
  2. Please do not continue to use the bulging lithium battery. If the bulging situation occurs, try to replace the new lithium battery pack in time. Try not to rely on some methods taught on the Internet to continue to use the battery.
  3. Lithium battery packs generally need to be professionally recycled to avoid pollution. If there is no way to deal with them, they are thrown into the classified recycling bins at the service points of telecommunications service providers.
  4. Usually, when charging, pay attention to the choice of the charger. For example, the rated charging voltage of the battery is 3.7v, and the limited voltage is 4.2V. Try not to choose a charger that exceeds this voltage, as long as it can maintain a constant current.

HLC helps you with high-quality lithium batteries.
Safe, Durable, Reliable.


Can the cell phone battery be stored for a long time?

The answer is no. It is generally recommended that the storage time of mobile phone batteries is about three months, and the longest is not more than half a year. Even if it is not used, the battery of the mobile phone itself is always discharging, and the voltage will be lower than the rated voltage for a long time, so that it cannot be turned on and charged normally.

The phone was replaced with a new battery, why can't it be restored to the same durability and smoothness as a new phone?

Even if the new battery is replaced, due to the changes in the environment of the mobile phone and the aging of its own hardware and circuits, the power consumption of the mobile phone itself has increased a lot compared to the new mobile phone, so it is difficult to restore the durability of the new mobile phone. degree and fluency.

Will my phone explode if charged for a long time?

Because the current mobile phone batteries are all lithium-ion polymer batteries, the possibility of explosion is extremely low compared to before. When the lithium-ion battery is charged, there is usually a protection circuit to protect it to prevent damage to the lithium-ion battery caused by overvoltage and overcurrent. When the battery is fully charged, the protection system will automatically identify and change from high current to trickle charging, so that the phone will not continue to charge. Therefore, if the lithium-ion battery does not fail in the charger and the protection circuit, even if it is charged overnight, it will not cause damage to the battery structure, nor will it cause the battery to catch fire and explode.

The battery of the mobile phone runs out soon, is it time to replace the battery?

The answer is to consider comprehensively. Because the standby time of the mobile phone battery is related to many factors, such as the signal strength of the operator, the usage time of various applications, screen brightness, sound volume, GPS signal strength, etc. The aging degree of the circuit, etc. It is not possible to judge whether there is a problem with the battery through a single condition, but to comprehensively consider it.

Is the phone overheating due to the battery?

When the phone is hot, it is not a battery problem in many cases. When the battery of the mobile phone is working normally, it does not heat up by itself. It is just an electrical energy storage "warehouse", and the temperature of the warehouse is affected by the surrounding environment. Therefore, if you feel that the mobile phone battery is heating, one reason is that the internal resistance of the mobile phone is too large due to the aging of the internal circuit of the mobile phone; another reason is the poor heat dissipation of the mobile phone; and it is forbidden to use the mobile phone to play large games for a long time, and play with the mobile phone while charging, etc. bad habit.

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